Widows (part 1)

Widows (part 1)

 

Introduction

 

Death is the ultimate fate of every soul.  Whether death comes from illness or suddenly and unexpected, it is the inevitable consequence of living.  As Allah the Exalted has clearly explained to us: ‘Every soul will taste death and you will be paid in full only on the Day of Resurrection’ [Qur’ān, 3: 185].

Questions often arise regarding what the waiting period (‘iddah), entails for a lady following the bereavement of her spouse.  During such testing times, it can be difficult to immediately know or grasp what the Islamic rulings upon dealing with this matter can be.  The central Qur’ānic verse stipulating the requirement of an ‘iddah, prior to any possibility of remarriage, is set out at verse 234 of chapter 2, al-Baqara:

والذين يتوفون منكم ويذرون أزواجا يتربصن بأنفسهن أربعة أشهر وعشرا فإذا بلغن أجلهن فلا جناح عليكم فيما فعلن في أنفسهن بالمعروف والله بما تعملون خبير

If any of you die and leave widows, the widows should wait for four months and ten before remarrying. When they have completed this set time, you will not be blamed for anything they may reasonably choose to do with themselves. Allah is fully aware of what you do.

In part one of this topic on widows, a translation of Issues (or inquiries) 1996 and 1997 from Ibn Ḥazm’s seminal work of fiqh, al-Muḥalla bil’Athār [Vol. 10, pp. 64/70] is presented.  Herein are detailed what the bereaving widow is to abstain from, or not undertake, during the specified period that the Qur’ānic text outlines.  It is intended that these issues should help to clarify what the Islamic texts stipulate, as well as dispelling some of the additional matters that are often mistaken as being mandatory requirements.  Some additional endnotes have been added together with some reformatting of the text for readability.

Part two of the topic on widows, inshā’Allah, will cover the more complicated areas of residency and travel.

Issue 1996: The one undertaking ‘iddah resulting from bereavement, to avoid using kohl

  1. It is obligated upon the one undertaking ‘iddah arising from bereavement that she avoids the use of kohl, all of it, whether by necessity or without necessity, even if affecting her eyes; neither (to use it) by day or night.(1)  As for her apparel, that is permissible (mubā) for her.
  2. Moreover, it is obligated: for her to avoid all dyed garments, whether worn on the head or the body or upon anywhere else. Whether it (the garment) is black, green, red, yellow or other than that, except that is, for the ‘aṣb alone, which is a garment used in Yemen; that therein is permissible.
  3. To avoid all (hair) dye, not being near to it.
  4. To avoid making hairstyles (hair-braiding with dye), but not to lay off with a comb only, since that is permissible.
  5. She is obligated to avoid going near all perfumery, except that is following her purification by using Qus or Izfār.(2)  That it is permissible: to wear after that what she wishes from white silk; or that which is yellow, except if dyed.  And sea-wool, which is its colour and white cotton; white linen fabrics that cling (like) muar and marwy, and other than that.

And it is lawful for her: that she can wear (what’s) woven with gold; all ornamental jewellery from gold, silver, emeralds, rubies and other than that.  And to enter the public bath (ḥammām) and wash her head with hibiscus and dry clay.  Hence there are only five things to be avoided.

The proof for that, is what has been narrated to us:

ما حدثناه أحمد بن قاسم أنا أبي قاسم بن محمد بن قاسم أنا جدي قاسم بن أصبغ أنا محمد بن إسماعيل أنا محمد بن كثير العبدي أنا سفيان الثوري عن عبد الله بن أبي بكر وأيوب بن موسى، ويحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري كلهم عن حميد بن نافع عن زينب بنت أم سلمة أن ابنة النحام توفي عنها زوجها، فأتت أمها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت: إن ابنتي تشتكي عينها أفأكحلها قال: لا قالت: إني أخشى أن تنفقئ عينها قال: وإن انفقأت

Aḥmad ibn Qāsim narrated to us Abi Qāsim ibn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim narrated to us my grandfather Qāsim ibn Aṣbagh narrated to us Muḥammad ibn Ismā’il narrated to us Muḥammad ibn Kathir al-‘Abdi narrated to us Sufyān al-Thawri narrated to us from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, Ayub ibn Musa and Yaḥya ibn Sa’eed al-Anṣāri, all of them from Ḥumayd ibn Nāfih from Zaynab bint Umm Salamah, that the husband of the daughter of al-Naḥḥām died, so her mother came to the Prophet peace be upon him and she said: My daughter complains about her eye, may she use kohl for it?  He said: No.  She asked: I am concerned that she may lose her eye?

And the remainder of the narrative is mentioned (as previously).  Abu Muḥammad said: Zaynab was a Companion and indeed we mentioned it previously before this, about (the narration of) Zaynab from her mother, the mother of the believers may Allah be pleased with her.  And from the channel of Aḥmad ibn Shu’ayb:

ومن طريق أحمد بن شعيب أنا حسين بن محمد الزارع البصري أنا خالد بن الحارث أنا هشام بن حسان عن حفصة بنت سيرين عن أم عطية قالت: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تحد المرأة على ميت فوق ثلاث إلا على زوج فإنها تحد عليه أربعة أشهر وعشرا ولا تلبس ثوبا مصبوغا إلا ثوب عصب ولا تكتحل ولا تمتشط، ولا تمس طيبا إلا عند طهرها حين تطهر: نبذة من قسط وأظفار

Ḥussein ibn Muḥammad al-Zāri’ al-Baṣri narrated to us Khālid ibn al-Ḥarith narrated to us Hishām ibn Ḥasān narrated to us from Ḥafṣ bint Sireen from Umm ‘Aṭiya, she said: The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said:

No woman should mourn for anyone who dies for more than three days, except for a husband, for whom she should mourn for four months and ten days. She should not wear garments that are dyed or patterned, or put on kohl or comb her hair, and she should not put on any perfume except when purifying herself after her period, when she may use a little of Qus or Azfār.

And from the channel of Aḥmad ibn Shu’ayb:

ومن طريق أحمد بن شعيب أنا محمد بن منصور المكي أنا سفيان أنا عاصم عن حفصة بنت سيرين عن أم عطية أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا يحل لامرأة تؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر أن تحد على ميت فوق ثلاث إلا على زوج ولا تكتحل ولا تختضب ولا تلبس ثوبا مصبوغا

Muḥammad ibn Manṣur al-Makki narrated to us Sufyān narrated to us ‘Aāṣim narrated to us from Ḥafṣ bint Sireen from Umm ‘Aṭiya, that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said:

It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the last Day, to mourn for anyone who dies for more than three days, except for a husband; she should not use kohl, dye, nor wear dyed clothes.

Thus, these reports are firmly established from the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, a compendium of all what we have mentioned.  And here, are the reports which are not authentic, which should be noted, Allah the exalted willing, lest anyone who is unaware, commit a mistake therein.  Herein a report from the channel of Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān:

حدثني بديل عن الحسن بن مسلم عن صفية بنت شيبة عن أم سلمة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال المتوفى عنها زوجها: لا تلبس المعصفر من الثياب ولا الممشقة ولا الحلي

Budeel narrated to us from al-Ḥasan ibn Muslim from Ṣafiyah bint Shayba from Umm Salamah from the Prophet peace be upon him, he said:

The woman whose husband has died should not wear clothes that are dyed with safflower or red clay, and she should not use dye nor kohl. (3)

Abu Muḥammad said: Mention is made in this report of the use of dye.  It is not authentic because Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān is aef (weak).  If authentic, we would detail it (4).

Mourning is made compulsory upon the dhimmiya, due to the statement of Allah the exalted: And judge between them by what Allah has revealed (5: 49), and with his statement: And fight them until there is no more fitna, and all the Deen is unto Allah (8: 39).  The Deen is the Ḥukm.  It is obligatory to make judgement upon them, by the judgment and ruling of Islam, thereby becoming binding upon them, leaving unto them the eternal judgement.  It is said: it does not oblige upon them the Deen of Islam, it is the differentiation of Islam.  As it relates to mourning it is required to determine whether the spouse of the widow was a freeman.  The report which we have narrated from the channel of Ibn Wahb:

من طريق ابن وهب عن مخرمة بن بكير عن أبيه قال: سمعت المغيرة بن الضحاك يقول أخبرتني أم حكيم بنت أسيد عن أمها أن زوجها توفي عنها فأرسلت مولاتها إلى أم سلمة أم المؤمنين تسألها عن كحل الجلاء فقالت: لا تكتحل به إلا لأمر لا بد منه يشتد عليك وتمسحينه بالنهار فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم دخل علي حين توفي أبو سلمة وقد جعلت على عيني صبرا فقال: ما هذا يا أم سلمة قلت يا رسول الله إنما هو صبر ليس فيه طيب، فقال: إنه يشب الوجه فلا تجعلينه إلا بالليل وتنزعينه بالنهار ولا تمتشطي بالطيب ولا بالحناء فإنه خضاب قلت: بأي شيء أمتشط يا رسول الله قال: بالسدر تغلفين به رأسك

Ibn Wahb from Makhrama ibn Bukeer from his father, he said: I asked al-Mughira ibn al-Ḍaḥḥāk, saying: Umm Ḥakeem bint Usaid reported to me from her mother that her husband died and she had a problem in her eye, so she applied kohl to clear her eyes. She sent a freed slave woman of hers to Umm Salamah to ask her about using kohl to clear her eyes.  She replied:  Do not use kohl unless it cannot be avoided. The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him entered upon me when Abu Salamah died and I had put some aloe juice on my eyes. He said: What is this, O Umm Salamah?  I said: It is aloe juice, O Messenger of Allah, there is no perfume in it.  He said: It makes the face look bright, so only use it at night, and do not comb your hair with perfume or henna, for it is a dye.  I said: With what can I comb it, O Messenger of Allah?  He said: With lote leaves -cover your head with them (5).

(Regarding) Umm Ḥakeem, she is unknown, her mother being even more as such.  Coming with that from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, an authentic report from Ibn Umar: neither apply kohl nor perfume, nor dye; neither wearing yellow, nor dyed clothing except burden.  Not to adorn with jewellery, not to wear anything she wants from adornment and not to adorn the eyes with kohl, except where accompanied with an eye complaint.  Also, authentically reported from him:

من طريق عبد الرزاق عن سفيان الثوري عن عبيد الله بن عمر عن نافع عن ابن عمر لا تمس المتوفى عنها زوجها طيبا، ولا تختضب ولا تكتحل، ولا تلبس ثوبا مصبوغا، إلا ثوب عصب تتجلبب به

From the channel of Abdar-Razzāq from Sufyān al-Thawri from ‘Ubaydallah ibn Umar from Nāfi from Ibn Umar: one bereaved of her spouse is not to touch perfume; neither using dye, nor apply kohl, nor to wear dyed clothing except that of Ab, that can be brought.

And this we say.  It is authentically reported from Umm ‘Aṭiya that she’s not to wear during mourning period, dyed clothes except alAb, and that not to touch perfume except after post-menstrual purity: Qus and al-Azfār:

وروينا من طريق سعيد بن منصور أنا هشيم أنا هشام بن حسان عن ابن سيرين، وحفصة عن أم عطية قالت في المتوفى عنها زوجها، أنها لا تمس خضابا، ولا تكتحل بكحل زينة، ولا تلبس ثوبا مصبوغا، ولا تمس من الطيب إلا أدنى الطيب: نبذة من قسط، وأظفار عند طهرها

As reported from the channel of Sa’eed ibn Manṣur: Hushaym narrated to us Hishām ibn Ḥasān from Ibn Sireen and Ḥafṣa from Umm ‘Aṭiya, she said: one bereaved of her spouse is not to touch pigment, nor to adorn with kohl, not to wear dyed clothing, nor to touch perform, except with only the slightest of Quswhen undertaking her post menstrual purity.

Indeed, it is reported from Umm Salamah, mother of the believers: not to use kohl on the eyes; and this we say.  It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbās that she is to avoid the use of perfume for adornment.  And reported from Umm Salamah, mother of the believers:

من طريق عبد الرزاق عن معمر عن بديل العقيلي عن الحسن بن مسلم عن صفية بنت شيبة عن أم سلمة أم المؤمنين المتوفى عنها زوجها: لا تلبس من الثياب المصبغة شيئا، ولا تكتحل، ولا تلبس خاتما، ولا تختضب، ولا تطيب

From the channel of Abdar-Razzāq from Ma’mar from Budeel al-‘Uqayli from al-Ḥasan ibn Muslim from Ṣafiyah bint Shayba from Umm Salamah, mother of the believers, the woman whose husband has died: she shouldn’t wear dyed clothes, nor apply kohl, nor wear a ring nor dye the hands and perfume.

From Ibn ‘Abbās or Sa’eed ibn al-Mussayib: the woman whose husband has passed away: not to use perfume, nor wear dyed clothes, nor to apply henna, kohl or ornamental jewellery. And from an unauthentic channel reported from ‘Aisha, mother of the believers, that contains within it Ibn Lahiya: to not wear dyed saffron, nor to apply perfume; to not apply kohl, wear jewellery; if she wishes to wear garment of al-Ab.

As for (the reports stemming from) the Tabi’een (successors): authentically reported from ‘Aṭā: the woman whose husband has died: not to wear pigment, and no jewellery; forbidden from perfume and adornment; no kohl made from ithmid, as it has adornments, and to not menstruate in it, they say, warss.  And kohl with aloe juice, if she so wishes.  If she is wearing silver jewellery, she isn’t required to remove it, if she wishes.  If it isn’t worn upon her, she may adorn (herself) with it. If by necessity she’s compelled to us ithmid or perfume, then it is permissible for it to be utilised. It was disliked for her to have or other than it, and other than that, it was only related to a ring.

He said: and that she comb with henna, and the ring; not to perfume with Qus or Izfār, and not to decorate her howdah, when riding in it to be seen: almarwy and al-harawee adornment and seen with the adornment of pearls.  He said: if there were silver rings on which there are lobes, or other that that, it is permissible to wear them – He said: if a minor spouse dies, her family can decorate and beautify her.

  • And reported from Sa’eed ibn al-Mussayib, ‘Umrah bint Abdar-Raḥman, ‘Urwa ibn al-Zubayr, ‘Aṭā, Yaḥya ibn Sa’eed al-Anṣāri and Rabia’: that she doesn’t wear jewellery or any dyed clothes from (various) dyes.
  • Authentically reported from ‘Urwa ibn al-Zubayr: the woman whose bereaved of her husband, is not to apply kohl, nor colouring or comb her hair; not wear warss, (6) or saffron, and neither wear red except for al-Ab.
  • Authentically reported from al-Zuhri, he said: It is disliked for the bereaved: al-Ab and black; she shouldn’t wear dyed clothes, and she shouldn’t wear jewellery and perfume.
  • Authentically reported from Ibrāhim al-Nakha’i: for the bereaved woman to not touch yellow-dye and perfume; for her not to use kohl in adornment, except if false or aloe juice, except where the kohl is reduced to ashes.
  • And authentically reported from ‘Urwa ibn al-Zubayr: that the lady whose husband died said to him: I have nothing except for this khimar and it is dyed with logwood?  So, he replied: dye it black.

Regarding those who followed after them, (such as) Abu Ḥanifah and his companions, they said: adornment isn’t allowed, by (way of) jewellery, kohl, dyed clothes with warss and saffron; specifically, yellow, not to adorn with oil at all, whether it is beneficial or otherwise.  Though they permitted her (to wear) the red Khazz.

  • Mālik said: She should avoid all forms of adornment: jewellery, rings and other than it; she shouldn’t wear Khazz, nor al-Ab, except specifically the thick Ab.  Neither use dyed garments, except that which is black and neither use kohl.  To not adorn using any perfume, neither anoint the eyes with perfume or other than it; to not comb the hair with henna, or anything that dyes the hair, except but with lotus-tree leaves, and to not anoint her eyes with olive oil or sesame.
  • al-Shāfi’i said: She should avoid all (forms) of adornment, all fragrant oils: (whether) olive or otherwise (for use) upon her head or other than that.  Neither to apply kohl with what is considered adornment, though there is nothing untoward with the kohl without accompanying adornment.  If she was compelled to have such adornments from that, they should be made at night, and wiped (clear) during the day, akin to patience and so forth.  She should avoid every dyed adornment and wearing white, (garments) dyed with black and green (and that) which comes close to black and whatever is not with adornment and to avoid perfume.

Abu Muḥammad said: All these statements are mistaken, with nothing contained therein, because none of them are established by way of authentic proofs, neither by the Qur’ān, nor the Sunnah.  Particularly so, the statements of Abu Ḥanifah regarding specifying that of the dyed garments with warss and yellow saffron.  The statement of Mālik, to avoid the garment of al-Ab, unless it is coarse; the statement of al-Shāfi’i in the specification of dyes, they are statements of which no one knows prior to this, not making much sense at all.

If it is said: the meaning in relation to mourning is to avoid adornment?  We say: God forbid that.  By Allah, if the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him had intended that, why was he unable to express a single word regarding it?  It is not long (in speech) to mention dye, except alAb; to mention perfume except Qusand al-Azfār when undertaking ritual purity specifically; to mention kohl, and combing in relation to pigments specifically.  He upon him be blessings and peace, was given ‘Jawāmi’ al-Kalim’ (7). Indeed, it is certain falsehood to make the attribution to him (peace be upon him), that he wanted (the prohibition of) adornment but failed to mention it.  And that he only wanted to indicate by name some types of dye generally – without doubt this is falsehood, a cut-off (maqṭu) lie; every statement marshalled as a supposed proof is but falsehood.

If they were to say, but (is not) the intention (behind) mourning, sadness, sorrow?  We respond by saying, this is a lie.  If that were obliged upon the Prophet peace be upon him, who does not express sorrow or has to be sorrowful, then (it would also be obliged) upon the parents.  Even if a woman declared that she had never been pleased with her husband following death, there is no sin, neither blame in that, as it is not limited to rights he was entitled to in life.  If only to express sadness upon him, but permissible for her after ‘iddah.  And sorrow, grief after the ‘iddah is not prohibited, and it is not permitted unto her the greater duration of mourning as mentioned.

Here is an additional statement, as what has been narrated from the channel of Ḥammād ibn Salamah from Ḥumayd, that al-Ḥasan al-Baṣri was saying: the divorced three: or the lady bereaved of her spouse are applying kohl, dyeing their hair, applying perfume, dye(s), making and putting on whatever they wish.  And from the channel of Shu’ba from al-Ḥakam ibn ‘Utayba, that lady bereaved of her spouse doesn’t mourn.  Abu Muḥammad said: the people of this persuasion protested with the following:

أنا محمد بن سعيد بن نبات أنا أحمد بن عون الله أنا قاسم بن أصبغ أنا محمد بن عبد السلام الخشني أنا محمد بن بشار أنا محمد بن جعفر أنا شعبة أنا الحكم بن عتيبة عن عبد الله بن شداد بن الهادي أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  قال لامرأة جعفر بن أبي طالب: إذا كان ثلاثة أيام فالبسي ما شئت، أو إذا كان بعد ثلاثة أيام

Muḥammad ibn Sa’eed ibn Nabbāt narrated to us Aḥmad ibn ‘Awnillah narrated to us Qāsim ibn Aṣbagh narrated to us Muḥammad ibn Abdas-Salām al-Khushani narrated to us Muḥammad ibn Bashār narrated to us Muḥammad ibn Ja’far narrated to us Shu’ba narrated to us al-Ḥakam ibn ‘Utayba narrated to us from Abdullah ibn Shaddād al-Hādi that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said for the woman of Ja’far ibn Abi Ṭālib:

If its three-days, wear it as you like or if it is after three-days.

A doubtful sophism.

ومن طريق حماد بن سلمة: أنا الحجاج بن أرطاة عن الحسن بن سعيد عن عبد الله بن شداد أن أسماء بنت عميس استأذنت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن تبكي على جعفر وهي امرأته فأذن لها ثلاثة أيام، ثم بعث إليها بعد ثلاثة أيام: أن تطهري واكتحلي

From the channel of Ḥammād ibn Salamah: Ḥajjāj ibn Arṭā narrated to us from al-Ḥasan ibn Sa’eed from Abdullah ibn Shaddād that Asmā bin Umays sought permission of the Prophet peace be upon him to weep to weep upon the death of her husband Ja’far, and she was allowed to do so for three days.  Thereafter then sent (word) to her after three-days: cleanse yourself and apply kohl.

Abu Muḥammad said: This tradition is munqaṭi’ and contains no proof therein, because Abdullah ibn Shaddād did not hear anything from the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him. Ali said: It has been necessary to take forth those corrupt viewpoints, responding in turn with the established Sunnah, like the prayer for health of the sitting Imām for the diseased.  Like the affirming of the  ‘iddah that they take with this and no mark and mourning as per the report of the mother of the believers, Umm Salamah: that he, peace be upon him ordered it after the death of Abu Salamah, and there is no dispute that the death of Abu Salamah was before the death of Ja’far – may Allah be pleased with them – by two years – but they do not care about contradiction.

Ali said: the washing of the dyed garment so as not to leave the effect of dye is not (considered) dyed: it can be worn.

Issue 1997: Mourning upon the deceased 

If a lady undertakes this for three-days upon a father, brother, son, mother, or other close (relatives), then that is permitted.  With what is narrated from the channel of Bukhāri:

روينا من طريق البخاري أنا عبد الله بن يوسف أنا مالك عن عبد الله بن أبي بكر بن محمد بن عمرو بن حزم عن حميد بن نافع عن زينب بنت أبي سلمة أنها أخبرته أنها سمعت أم حبيبة، وزينب بنت جحش أمي المؤمنين تقولان: إنهما سمعتا رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – يقول لا يحل لامرأة تؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر أن تحد على ميت فوق ثلاث إلا على زوج أربعة أشهر وعشرا

Abdullah ibn Yusuf narrated to us Mālik reported to us from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Amr ibn Ḥazm from Ḥumayd ibn Nāfi’ from Zaynab bint Abi Salamah, she reported to him that she heard Umm Ḥabeeba and Zaynab bint Jaḥsh, mothers of the believers that they said they have heard the Messenger of Allah pace be upon him saying:

It is not lawful for a lady who believes in Allah and the Last Day to mourn for a dead person for more than three days unless he is her husband for whom she should mourn for four months and ten.

Endnotes

  1. The numbering is an addition that has been included in this specific translation, primarily for ease of formatting and perusal.
  2. Types of incense.  Qus is sometimes rendered as referring to Indian aloeswood.
  3. The narration appears in the Sunan collections of Abu Dāwud and Nasā’i, as well as the Musnad of Aḥmad.    Shu’ayb al-Arnā’uṭ commenting upon the tradition in Aḥmad says the isnād is Ṣaḥīḥ.  Ibn Ḥazm seems to have slightly abridged the isnād here.  That cited in the standard collection of Abu Dāwud is as follows: Zuhayr ibn Ḥarb narrated to us Yaḥya ibn Abi Bukeer narrated to us Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān narrated to us Budeel narrated to me from al-Ḥasan ibn Muslim from Ṣafiyah bint Shayba from Umm Salamah.
  4. Several scholars have departed from Ibn Ḥazm’s judgement here regarding upon the narrator Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān as being aef.  In Nayl al-Awṭār, Shawkāni said: ‘Firstly, the adith of Umm Salamah; al-Bayhaqi said – it is reported marfu’ and mawquf from the channel of Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān. And he is trustworthy (thiqa), being from the men of the two Ṣaḥīḥ’s (sic. Bukhari and Muslim).  Declared as weak by Ibn Ḥazm, but one shouldn’t regard that.  Dāraquṭni lessened his weakness, but it is from before the ‘irja.  It is said he refrained from doing that.’  Ibn Ḥajar records him as thiqa in al-Taqreeb al-Tahzib [no. 189], with a much lengthier comment in al-Tahzib [Vol. 1, no. 231], noting that many considered him thiqa, including Aḥmad, Abu Dāwud, Abu Hātim amongst others.  M. ‘Azami (2000), Studies in Early Hadith Literature, p. 138 has mentioned regarding him: ‘Ibrāhim ibn Ṭah’mān, Abu Sa’eed al-Khurasāni (d. 163).  Isḥāq bin Rāhawayh said that no one had more aḥādith than Ibrāhim in Khurasān.  He was not only a transmitter of his teachers’ traditions, but was also a compiler of many books.  According to Ibn al-Nadim he complied: Kitāb al-Sunan, Kitāb al-Manāqib, Kitāb al-‘Idayn, Kitāb al-Tafsir.  Ibn al-Mubārak says, ‘His books were perfect.’
  5. Sunan Abu Dāwud and Nasā’i.
  6. Warss’ is a yellow dye from a perennial plant cultivated in Yemen, identified usually as being memecylon tinctorium.
  7. The shortest expression with the widest meaning.  The phrase is reported in several authentic narrations, for example in Bukhāri: Sa’eed ibn ‘Ufayr narrated to us al-Layth narrated to us ‘Uqayl narrated to me from Ibn Shihāb, Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib reported to me that Abu Hurayrah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him say: ‘I have been sent with Jawāmi’ al-Kalim…’